Tips To Find The Best Metal Roof

Reasons to Choose A Metal Roof

Know the environment the roof will be subjected to

There are environments where a metal roof will perform better than any other material, especially those subjected to extreme weather events, such as:

  • High wind
  • High UV/sun exposure
  • High moisture – rain, ice, or snow

But that doesn’t mean metal roofing can’t work in mild environments either. In fact, metal roofing works well in generally any area as long as the correct panel type is used for the application and the installation details are followed. Just be aware that there are places where a metal roof can be installed, but not qualify for one or more warranties. This especially applies to structures near the coast and subjected to brackish water, salt-water bays, and crashing surfs.

Here are a few more items to look for in your living environment before installing a new roof:

  • Shaded areas
  • Tree cover
  • Potential pollutants in the air
  • Other nearby bodies of water

Know how much maintenance you’re willing to do

Any roofing material will require maintenance of some kind, but the frequency of such maintenance varies across the board. This is why knowing how often you want to or are willing to do regular maintenance on your roof is a key consideration to think about. We’ll talk more about metal roofing maintenance in the next section.

 

Why Should Homeowners Consider Metal Roofing?

Metal roofs offer several advantages including a longer life cycle than roofing materials like asphalt, and cedar. Metal roofs can withstand the elements including hail, heavy rain and snow, and high winds. Metal roofs have also been credited for protecting homes during forest and brush fires. In fact, in many areas insurance companies offer homeowners up to a 30% reduction in their homeowners insurance when they install a metal roof.

Available in three different styles: standing-seam roofing, panel roofing, and look-alikes including tiles, cedar, or slate. Standing-seam metal roofs have large ribs, which require crimping or soldering to connect them. Panel roofing panels resemble standing-seam roofing however, these require being screwed down. With the exception of the screw-down panels, metal roofing installations require special training.

Metal roofs can initially cost up to three to four times more than asphalt or cedar roofs. However, homeowners must keep in mind that the average asphalt cedar roof will require replacing approximately every 15 to 20 years, whereas metal roofs can last over 60-years, making metal the perfect roofing choice.

 

What Metal Is Used for Roofs?

There are several metals used to make metal roofs, and they all have different benefits. These include:

  • Copper: This has been in use for years. It’s naturally rust resistant, and weathers naturally.
  • Alloys: These are combinations of different metals to create stronger roofs.
  • Stainless steel: This metal won’t rust or corrode on your roof.
  • Lead: Malleable and durable. You can cut this metal into different shapes, depending on what you need.
  • Zinc: This is another versatile metal, that’s also resistant to corrosion.

 

Why Choose A Metal Roof?

Have you noticed a metal roof or two in your neighborhood? There are many surprising reasons why a homeowner would choose to have a metal roof installed over any other material. Metal roofs provide a lifetime of protection, dramatic energy savings, and are available in a variety of designs and colors to complement any style home. A metal roof can have traditional vertical seams, or be made to resemble woodshake, slate, shingles or clay tiles. Listed below are five extraordinary benefits of metal roofs.

Home Appreciation
In any area of the U.S., the costs of installing a metal roof can be recouped by more than 75%. In Western states specifically, the average cost of installing a metal roof is $16,906, while it raises the resale value of your home by $14,661. That’s a recoupment of 86.7% and higher than the national average.

Energy Efficiency and Reduced Waste
Your roofing material has a major impact on the amount of heat your house absorbs from the sun. You can saveup to 40% in air-conditioning energy costs by installing a reflective metal roof, while a highly emissive metal roof can reduce the air temperature in your home by as much as 12 ° F. In addition to cutting CO2 emissions from your HVAC system, most metal roofing systems are made of recycled material and can be installed right on top of an existing roof, but we don’t recommend that.

Insurance Savings
We live in an area where extreme weather, high winds and forest fires can occur from time to time. While it is obviously ideal for safety reasons, it is also useful to know that impact and fire-resistant metal roofing may qualify you for discounts on your homeowner’s insurance. Homeowners in some areas of the U.S. have been known to receive a 30% discount.

 

Metal roofs are easier to install 

In comparison to asphalt, slate or clay roofing, metal roofing is much easier to install. Some roof installations can take 3-4 days to complete while metal roofs tend to take around 1-2 days

Metal roofs are durable 

There’s a reason why metal roofs last so long, they are extremely durable. Metal roofs protect from some of the harshest weather and most aggressive winds. It can withstand high amounts of rain and snow and won’t burn from the sun. Steel sheet metal roofing makes for one of the most durable roofs out there.

Metal roofs are affordable

Many people will automatically go for an asphalt roof when looking for affordable roofing because it can be cheaper than a metal roof. What they may not realize is that they’re buying a roof that may not last as long as a metal roof. What they also might not realize is that asphalt roofs need much more maintenance than almost any other roof out there.

Metal roofs up your property value

You can up your property value. A contemporary looking metal roof on a home can increase its value from 1-6%. And since metal roofing in Toronto is an effective insulator, it can decrease your energy bill every month, thus further increasing your property value. Metal roofing offers more colors than regular asphalt roofing as well as a European design that can make your home look amazing. Upkeeping your home aesthetically is something that will also increase the value and houses with metal roofs will most likely attract a higher percentage of buyers when the time comes to sell.

Must Know How To Clean Clogged Toilet

How to Unblock a Toilet Drain in Your Home

Being able to unblock a toilet drain in your home can save you valuable time and money. Blocked toilets can happen for several reasons, but most are not serious can be removed by following a few easy steps.

Before attempting to unblock your toilet drain, first, apply some damage limitation. Don’t repeatedly flush your toilet to remove a blockage – it may overflow and then you’ll have a mess to clear up as well as a blocked toilet drain.

  1. Source & Locate the Problem

If the cause of the toilet blockage is visible, put on a pair of rubber gloves and remove it. If you cannot see the cause of the blockage then it’s time to experiment.

  1. Add Dishwasher Liquid & Hot Water

Keep your rubber gloves on and drop a small amount of dishwashing liquid and a half bucket of hot water, pour it into the toilet bowl from waist height and leave for a few minutes.

  1. Plunge the Toilet to Loosen Blockage

Choose a heavy-duty plunger with a flange on its base. Place the plunger completely over the hole at the bottom of the toilet bowl until it is submerged in water. Press down firmly and slowly. Repeat.

  1. Hook Toilet Blockage With Coat Hanger

Next, try using an unravelled wire coat-hanger to hook the blockage. This technique is most effective when the toilet blockage is in the first 5cm – 10cm of the drain.

  1. Remove Deeper Blockages With a Plumbing Snake/Auger

If the blockage is too deep to unblock with a coat hanger, a plumbing ‘snake’ or ‘auger’ is great at removing difficult toilet blockages. A plumbing auger is a coiled wire that can ‘snake’ through twists and turns in drains. Due to its high flexibility, a plumbing auger is incredibly effective in locating and removing deep toilet blockages.

  1. Enzyme-Based Chemicals

Another method to unblock your toilet is utilising enzyme-based chemicals to break down the solid matter that is causing the blockage. This will only work on organic matter (not objects or hair) and takes some time for effects to take place. Alternatively, find a bucket and half fill it with hot water, baking soda and vinegar. This water-based solution is a great alternative to enzyme-based chemicals and is very effective at breaking down solid matter.

 

How To Clear Blocked Drains – DIY

The methods for draining a blocked drain depends on whether the clog is partial or full-on. The former, or partial clog, will allow at least some water down the drain. The latter, however, means the drains are fully blocked and no water is going down at all.

Refresh your drains with soda!

Ever heard that a nail put in a glass of soda will dissolve and eventually disappear with time? It’s true. This may take you by surprise – soda is great for vanquishing a clog in your drains. It can even be more effective than many commercial clog removers packed with strong dissolving agents

Clear a Blocked Sink with Boiling Water

This is an easy DIY method of unclogging a blocked drain pipe. The high temperatures in hot boiling water should be able to do the work.

Use vinegar and baking soda to remove clogs

Pour half a packet of baking soda down the clogged drain without adding any water. Then add half a cup of vinegar down the pipe. Use a metal stopper or some rags to stop up the drain and let the two substances react for 30 minutes. Remove the stopper and pour hot water down the drain.

Plunger for more stubborn clogs

A hand plunger may be necessary for a sink or toilet that has a large, stubborn obstruction. The suction action of the plunger can help to dislodge clogs so they can be washed away down the drain.

 

What to Do If Your Main Sewer Drain Is Clogged

Don’t run the water or flush the toilet! If you don’t add water to your drain system, you can’t make the problem worse (that is, if the clog is in your line and not the city’s main; see below). As an added precaution, you can shut off the main water supply to the house so that no one runs the water by accident. Tell everyone in the house not to use water, then call a plumber or drain specialist to have the drain cleared. These professionals have special equipment, including motorized augers, to quickly and effectively remove large clogs in the main sewer drains.

 

The Most Common Methods to unblock a Toilet

If the toilet bowl is not overflowing, you can use a drain-opening chemical to soften or break down the materials that are causing the blockage. Pour the chemical into the toilet bowl and leave it for about 15 minutes. This should loosen up the blockage. The water level should go down at this point which indicates that the blockage is moving and the toilet may eventually drain on its own. When the water level is low, flush it once to finally clear out the blockage.

Use the Toilet Plunger

The plunger you use must have a fold out rubber cup that is definitely designed for the opening of a toilet trap.

Thrust the plunger into the opening then pull it back without the cup leaving the opening. Use an even force when thrusting and pulling back the plunger to have a solid close on the opening. Repeat it several times until you see the water go down to a low level.

Finally, flush the bowl once. If the water is still slow in going down, repeat the plunging process again.

If the problem still persists, do the next option which is the toilet auger and it is shaped like the letter “J” with a cable and a handle. Fully expose the tip of the cable by pulling the handle all the way out.

Introduce the tip of the auger into the opening of the toilet trap. Gradually drive the handle forward through the opening and turn the auger at the same time.

When all you can see is just the handle pull out the whole length and repeat the process at least 3 times to ensure the blockage has been removed.

 

How to Unclog Your Toilet with a Plunger

Get your clogged toilet back up and running again the good old-fashioned way—with a plunger and some serious elbow grease. Here’s how to restore your toilet to working order in just six easy steps:

  1. If the toilet bowl is already filled to the brim, manually remove enough water to use the plunger without splashing or overflowing in the plunging process. We recommend using a small bowl or bucket to gently scoop out excess water to give your plunging process some space.
  2. Gently place the plunger in the toilet bowl, lowering it gradually and letting air from inside the plunger bubble out.
  3. Form a snug seal around the opening at the bottom of the toilet bowl. You’re now in position to push the clog out of the pipe.
  4. Begin to plunge firmly into the toilet with a straight, up-and-down motion. The plunger should force the existing water into the trapway of the toilet and into the pipes and push the blockage out. If the toilet is successfully plunged, you should see the water level in the toilet bowl diminish.
  5. Fill a large container with a gallon of water, and carefully pour it into the toilet bowl. The water level of the toilet bowl should go down, indicating that the blockage has been removed.
  6. If the water level does not drop, continue plunging and pouring water until the clog is dislodged.

Tips To Learn To Be Camera Operator

Film/​Television Camera Operator

Pay for film/television camera operators varies depending on experience and the type of production they are working on.

Entry requirements

There are no specific entry requirements to become a film/television camera operator. However, a relevant tertiary qualification in film, television or video production is useful.

Secondary education

There are no specific secondary education requirements to become a film or television camera operator. However, English, maths, media studies, digital technologies, drama and photography are useful.

Most camera operators are freelancers, and in a freelance world you live on the reputation of your last job. So you need to get on with the clients and production companies you work with

Physical requirements

Film/television camera operators need to have a good level of fitness as they stand for extended periods and carry heavy camera equipment. They also need to have good hearing and normal colour vision.

 

Camera operator jobs: What do they do? What do they get paid? How do I become one?

Camera operators play a vital role in filming TV, film and online productions and are in charge of – as you might have guessed – cameras. But what do camera operators do? What makes a camera operator stand out? How do you become a camera operator? What do camera operators get paid?

What do camera operators do? And who do camera operators work with?

Camera operators are responsible for operating a variety of technical equipment including mobile mounts and digital, electronic and film cameras. They work with the film’s director and director of photography to achieve the desired visual style of the production. Camera operators work in close collaboration with the camera department as well as occasionally engaging in dialogue with the actors.

When do camera operators start work?

Camera operators start working near the end of pre-production. While they sometimes have a hand in planning and preparing scenes, they are mostly responsible for making adjustments to the camera based on the elements affecting the shot after the director and DP block the scene.

Types of camera operators

There are a variety of camera operators who work across the world in countless capacities. Some capture music videos, others risk their lives in war-torn areas, some shoot sports and others work on movie sets.

Can I be a camera operator?

Camera operator certainly do a lot more than push buttons and it takes a lot of determination and resilience to become one. The job is physically demanding and usually takes place far from home, sometimes for weeks or months on end.

 

How to Hire a Camera Operator

A camera operator performs the most basic and essential function in any video production—making sure footage is captured. While a director is in charge of the creative vision of a production, the camera operator is the finely tuned instrument that gets the job done. Experts in angles, focus, motion, and lighting, camera operators know just how to carry out a director’s grand ideas and turn them into a reality. Hiring a quality freelance camera operator will make any simple production look professional and outstanding.

What to Look For

No matter what their credentials are, freelance camera operators will have a showreel to display their talent—education matters little compared with showing actual work. When you sit down to interview a potential freelance camera operator, you should be looking for a couple specific things in his or her showreel

Know What You Need

Since freelance camera operators essentially work to carry out someone else’s ideas, they won’t require much beforehand such as a script or a meeting with the cast members. If you want to have all your bases covered however, you’ll want to ask them if they have all their own equipment or if you will need to provide any. Part of this comes down to the types of shots you want them to capture. For instance, a good freelance camera operator should have his or her own camera and simple crane jibs.

How are the shots focused?

Almost the entirety of a freelance camera operator’s job consists of taking clear, focused shots. The creative direction of the reel isn’t really important here, whether it is good or bad. If the shots are focused well, telling the visual story that should be flowing naturally, chances are you’ve found a good freelance camera operator.

How does the camera track movement?

Capturing motion is another quality you should look for. If the movement does not stay properly framed throughout the shot, you may want to look for someone else.

 

How to become a Film and Television Camera Operator

Education & Training for a Film and Television Camera Operator

To become a film and television camera operator you usually have to complete a VET qualification. Applicants may be required to attend an interview and/or submit a folio of work. As subjects and prerequisites can vary between institutions, you should contact your chosen institution for further information. You can also become a film and television camera operator through a traineeship in Media. Entry requirements may vary, but employers generally require Year 10. Alternatively, you can become a film and television camera operator by completing a degree in creative arts, media, screen production, or film and television. To get into these courses you usually need to gain your Senior Secondary Certificate of Education with English. Applicants may be required to attend an interview and/or submit a folio of work. Institutions have different prerequisites and some have flexible entry requirements. Contact the institutions you are interested in for more information.

Working conditions for a Film and Television Camera Operator

Film and television camera operators work as part of a team and are often required to work long and irregular hours, including nights and weekends. They may need to travel to remote areas. Work can take place indoors and outdoors.

Employment Opportunities for a Film and Television Camera Operator

Camera operators may be employed by television broadcasters and film companies. The demand for camera operators depends on levels of investment in film and television production, as well as the introduction of new technology. Competition for entry-level positions is strong and people appointed have usually been employed in some other aspect of film and television production. Promotion to the level of camera operator depends on demonstrated skills and proficiency, as well as full knowledge of the various types of cameras used.

Specializations

A director of photography oversees the lighting and camera crew in the film production unit. They instruct camera operators on camera set-up, angles, distance and movement, then signal cues to start and stop filming. After each day’s filming, the director of photography checks the ‘rushes’ (the scenes shot that day) and decides whether re-filming is necessary.

Film and Television Camera Operator

Film and television camera operators set up, position and operate equipment in studios or on location to photograph or record people, events and scenes. Film camera operators use 16mm and 35mm film cameras or digital video for motion pictures, whereas television and video camera operators use cine-electronic television or digital video and video cameras for direct telecast and recording.

 

FILM CREW RULES FROM A VETERAN CAMERA OPERATOR

Get out before you get in.

Simply loving movies is not enough to sustain anyone for decades of long days, missed holidays, and unpredictable income. If any skill other than filmmaking comes easily to you go for that. It will probably be an easier life path than the film slog. If this is your only calling, welcome to the club.

Put the silver marker & Criterion DVD away.

A strong work ethic and set etiquette is extremely important when working around strangers and celebrities. Asking for photos or signatures on-set is distracting and unprofessional. Pro Tip: The sooner you can get comfortable acknowledging famous people as simply other human beings, the closer you are to really learning something interesting about them.

One of those Production Assistants will be your boss someday.

Treat all crew members with respect. People move quickly in the film industry:  today’s PA might be tomorrow’s Executive Producer. Bring Your A-game to every job because it’s habit forming and you never know who’s watching. Pro tip: use a printed call sheet on-set rather than using your distracting phone.  Even if you’re doing work and checking the call sheet on your phone, other people on set who see you staring down at the screen might think you’re texting. With a printed call sheet there’s no question that you’re focused.

Don’t dress like a pirate.

Working in an industry without a dress code is great, but it’s no excuse to look and act like a salty sailor. Inspire confidence in your employers with your appearance and communication. If you’re new, a clean shave (for the dudes) or neat hairdo (for the gals) and a collared shirt is a good start.  The idea here is that if something goes wrong on set and the Director or Producer is pissed off and looking around for someone to blame you want them to look at you and see a calm, cool, professional. Your clothes and appearance can make the difference.

Never back out of a shoot.

Freelancers naturally develop a mercenary instinct to follow the highest bidder.  But a key to long-term survival in film production is to value your relationships with good people more than a big paycheck. Never sign up for a shoot and then skip our in favor of a larger paycheck.  Doing that is the best way to make enemies and build a bad reputation. Pro Tip: Expect loyalty on both sides of the relationship. A boss who will fight for your rate is worth following.

Must Know How To Choose Good Garbage Disposal

Tips for Keeping Your Garbage Disposal in Top Shape

DO run the garbage disposal every few days.

Even if you don’t have to grind any food scraps up, you should run the appliance with cold water to keep the blades from rusting from lack of use. This also gives any food that might have stuck to the sides of the appliance from a previous use will another chance to wash out.

DON’T send fibrous, starchy, or hard leftovers down the drain.

Avoid all that can break the appliance or gum up the works; if you’re uncertain, check to see if it made this list of no-nos. The garbage disposal is best saved for ice cubes and softer foods—and even those should be cut up small before sent down.

DO power down your garbage disposal when you need to repair or clean it.

Safety first: Unplug the unit or cut power to the kitchen at the circuit breaker before taking any action to prevent the worst from happening while you work around the bladed appliance.

DON’T use your fingers to pull out any clogs.

Instead, avoid injury from the blades by using pliers or tongs to remove any scraps that have not been finely ground up.

DO try untangling any fibers wrapped around your garbage disposal’s blade using the wrench that came with your unit

With that tool, you simply turn the nut at the base of the unit, then press the small red reset button in the center, and flip the switch to restart.

 

Buyer’s Guide: Garbage Disposals

They’re one of the handiest kitchen helpers, grinding food waste into tiny bits so it can drain away with sink water. Garbage disposals are not only great for post-meal cleanup, they also reduce the amount of leftover food in the trashcan, which cuts down on odors.

A typical garbage disposal will last eight to 15 years, but if yours is on the fritz—or you’d like to add one to your appliance arsenal—you’re probably wondering what to look for in a unit.

All garbage disposals will pulverize soft foods with ease, but some do tend to jam while trying to grind raw fibrous vegetables, such as celery. At the same time, some of the most powerful disposals will chew right through chicken bones!

Read on for the facts, figures, and features—and check out our top three picks based on independent reviews and customer ratings—to find the best garbage disposal for you and your needs.

Before You Buy

Not all municipal sewage systems can handle food waste from garbage disposals. Because bits of food will be flowing through the drainpipes, using a garbage disposal can increase the risk of clogs in your home’s plumbing, or possibly even cause problems beyond your home (in a septic system, for example, or in the municipal sewage system). In addition, using a continuous-feed model, the most common type of disposal, increases water usage, because you must run water continuously while operating the unit.

 

TIPS TO KEEP YOUR GARBAGE DISPOSAL RUNNING RIGHT

Run Disposal Regularly

Run your garbage disposal on a regular basis. Even if you don’t have anything to grind up, turn on the water and run the disposal every few days to move the parts around. Otherwise, the disposal can freeze up, rust, or corrode; and any leftover food inside can harden, leading to odors and clogs.

Use Cold Water

Run cold water—not hot—when using your garbage disposal. Hot water works great for cleaning most things, but not your garbage disposal.

Run Disposal Longer

After your garbage disposal has finished grinding up the waste, keep it and the water running for a minute. This ensures that all the food has been flushed out the drain pipe to prevent clogs.

Cut Waste into Small Pieces

Your garbage disposal is only so big, and its blades and motor are only so powerful, so don’t expect miracles if you feed it large chunks of meat or fruit.

Grind Citrus Fruit

Soap and cold water will go a long way toward keeping your garbage disposal clean; but once in a while, toss the peel from an orange, lemon, or lime in your disposal.

 

EASY TIPS FOR MAINTAINING THE GARBAGE DISPOSAL

When the kitchen garbage disposal is running properly, it is a great appliance. It keeps your kitchen smelling fresh and clean. It makes cleaning up after dinner easy. It even reduces the amount of garbage in the landfills. But when the disposal isn’t working properly, the decaying food remaining in the appliance can make your kitchen or even your whole house stink. It is easy to avoid this problem by regularly following five easy tips recommended by plumbers.

Use plenty of water. Every time you run your disposal, turn on the cold water while the food is being chopped up. After you hear the grinding of the motor turn into a soft whir, turn off the device and let the water continue to run for about 10 to 20 seconds. The running water will carry any remaining particles out of the disposal and will more completely flush the pipes.

Use cold water. While hot water won’t damage the parts, cold water is better while running the disposal. Hot water will liquefy greases and fats. When they are in liquid form, grease adheres to the blades and will build up on them.

Avoid hard or fibrous foods. Disposals are for foods that grind into bits and pieces easily. Hard seeds, popcorn kernels, peach stones, apple seeds, or bones don’t grind very well, if at all. The smaller pieces can get wedged underneath the blades causing them to jam. Fibrous foods should be avoided, also, because the fibers tend to wrap themselves around the blades causing them to jam, too. Therefore, avoid onion skins, egg shells, celery stalks, corn husks, etc.

Clean the inside. Over time, it is natural for sludge to build up on the sides and blades of your appliance. It is best to avoid using harsh chemicals since they can damage the parts of your device. You can get a natural chemical reaction by putting baking soda down the drain and pouring vinegar on top of it. Another easy method is to combine the sharpening with the cleaning by putting about a cup of rock salt down the drain when you grind up your ice cubes.

 

TRICKS FOR RETRIEVING ITEMS FROM THE GARBAGE DISPOSAL

You’re standing over the sink washing some veggies and all the sudden you look down and notice your wedding ring is missing. Uh oh, it must have slipped off and slithered its way down the garbage disposal. Your heart stops as you let out a huge gasp, and perhaps shed a few tears because there is no way you’re going to stick your hand down there.

Don’t fret, because with our handy tricks, the battle between the ring and the garbage disposal ends here. But if you’re still unsure about fishing it out yourself, give your local Roto-Rooter professional a quick call.

First things first, it is extremely important to always use caution when you go to retrieve anything from the garbage disposal. Before sticking your hand or a tool down there, completely turn the power to the disposal off, as well as the main water supply to stop the flow.

GRAB A MAGNET

Before you proceed with this trick, make sure you are dealing with metallic items only or else you’ll be fishing around your disposal for days. To retrieve that ring, tie a long piece of string around a heavy-duty magnet and slowly lower it into the garbage disposal. Use those fishing skills and wiggle the magnet around a bit. You just might have some luck!

USE KITCHEN UTENSILS TO RETRIEVE NONMETAL ITEMS

Use a flashlight to locate nonmetal items that may have fallen down the disposal. Should you see anything, try to retrieve it with tongs, wooden spoons or another long kitchen utensil. Whatever you do, avoid sticking your hand down there – it’s sharp!

Must Know How To Use New Electric Circuits

CIRCUIT SCIENCE PROJECTS

Build a Circuit

How to make a circuit? A circuit is a path that electricity flows along. It starts at a power source, like a battery, and flows through a wire to a light bulb or other object and back to other side of the power source. You can build your own circuit and see how it works with this project

Insulator or Conductor?

Materials that electricity can flow through are call conductors. Materials that stop electricity from flowing are called insulators.

Before you test each object, guess whether it will make the light bulb light up or not. If it does, the object you’re touching the wires to is a conductor.

The light bulb lights up because the conductor completes, or closes, the circuit and electricity can flow from the battery to the light bulb and back to the battery! If it doesn’t light up, the object is an insulator and it stops the flow of electricity, just like an open circuit does.

 

How to Make a Simple Electrical Circuit

Gather the necessary materials.

To build a simple circuit, you will need a power source, 2 insulated wires, a light bulb, and a light bulb holder. A power source can be any type of battery or battery pack. The rest of the materials can be found at your local hardware store.

Strip the ends of the insulated wires.

In order for your circuit to work properly, the wires need to be totally exposed so you must strip the ends. Using wire strippers, remove about 1 inch (2.5 cm) of the insulation from the ends of each wire.

Install batteries into the battery pack

Depending on the type of batteries you are using, you may be able to skip this step. If you are using multiple batteries, you will need a power pack to hold the batteries. Push each battery in by the side taking care to put the positive and negative ends in the correct orientation.

Attach your wires to the battery pack.

The wires will be conducting your electric current from the batteries to the light bulb. The easiest way to attach the wires is to use electrical tape. Attach the end of one wire to one side of the battery, making sure that the wire maintains contact with the metal of the battery. Repeat with the other wire on the other side of the battery.

Fasten the other end of the wire to the metal screw of the bulb holder.

Take the exposed metal end of each wire and bend it into a U-shape. Loosen each screw on the light bulb holder just enough to slip the U-shape of the wire around the screw. Each wire will be attached to its own screw. Tighten the screw, ensuring that the metal of the wires remains in contact with the screw.

 

Ohms Law and Power

Ohms Law Relationship

By knowing any two values of the Voltage, Current or Resistance quantities we can use Ohms Law to find the third missing value. Ohms Law is used extensively in electronics formulas and calculations so it is “very important to understand and accurately remember these formulas”.

Ohms Law Triangle

Then by using Ohms Law we can see that a voltage of 1V applied to a resistor of 1Ω will cause a current of 1A to flow and the greater the resistance value, the less current that will flow for a given applied voltage. Any Electrical device or component that obeys “Ohms Law” that is, the current flowing through it is proportional to the voltage across it ( I α V ), such as resistors or cables, are said to be “Ohmic” in nature, and devices that do not, such as transistors or diodes, are said to be “Non-ohmic” devices.

Electrical Power in Circuits

Electrical Power, ( P ) in a circuit is the rate at which energy is absorbed or produced within a circuit. A source of energy such as a voltage will produce or deliver power while the connected load absorbs it. Light bulbs and heaters for example, absorb electrical power and convert it into either heat, or light, or both. The higher their value or rating in watts the more electrical power they are likely to consume.

The Power Triangle

So we can see that there are three possible formulas for calculating electrical power in a circuit. If the calculated power is positive, (+P) in value for any formula the component absorbs the power, that is it is consuming or using power. But if the calculated power is negative, (–P) in value the component produces or generates power, in other words it is a source of electrical power such as batteries and generators.

Electrical Power Rating

Electrical components are given a “power rating” in watts that indicates the maximum rate at which the component converts the electrical power into other forms of energy such as heat, light or motion. For example, a 1/4W resistor, a 100W light bulb etc.

 

Physics Classroom – Home

If the two requirements of an electric circuit are met, then charge will flow through the external circuit. It is said that there is a current – a flow of charge. Using the word current in this context is to simply use it to say that something is happening in the wires – charge is moving. Yet current is a physical quantity that can be measured and expressed numerically. As a physical quantity, current is the rate at which charge flows past a point on a circuit. As depicted in the diagram below, the current in a circuit can be determined if the quantity of charge Q passing through a cross section of a wire in a time t can be measured. The current is simply the ratio of the quantity of charge and time.

Current is a rate quantity. There are several rate quantities in physics. For instance, velocity is a rate quantity – the rate at which an object changes its position. Mathematically, velocity is the position change per time ratio. Acceleration is a rate quantity – the rate at which an object changes its velocity. Mathematically, acceleration is the velocity change per time ratio. And power is a rate quantity – the rate at which work is done on an object. Mathematically, power is the work per time ratio. In every case of a rate quantity, the mathematical equation involves some quantity over time. Thus, current as a rate quantity would be expressed mathematically as

As is the usual case, when a quantity is introduced in The Physics Classroom, the standard metric unit used to express that quantity is introduced as well. The standard metric unit for current is the ampere. Ampere is often shortened to Amp and is abbreviated by the unit symbol A. A current of 1 ampere means that there is 1 coulomb of charge passing through a cross section of a wire every 1 second.

Conventional Current Direction

The particles that carry charge through wires in a circuit are mobile electrons. The electric field direction within a circuit is by definition the direction that positive test charges are pushed. Thus, these negatively charged electrons move in the direction opposite the electric field. But while electrons are the charge carriers in metal wires, the charge carriers in other circuits can be positive charges, negative charges or both. In fact, the charge carriers in semiconductors, street lamps and fluorescent lamps are simultaneously both positive and negative charges traveling in opposite directions.

Current versus Drift Speed

Current has to do with the number of coulombs of charge that pass a point in the circuit per unit of time. Because of its definition, it is often confused with the quantity drift speed. Drift speed refers to the average distance traveled by a charge carrier per unit of time. Like the speed of any object, the drift speed of an electron moving through a wire is the distance to time ratio.

 

Residential Electrical Circuits Explained

What Are Electrical Circuits?

Before you put “electrical repair near me” in your favorite search engine, let’s make sure you understand what you’re looking for.

Power Circuits

If you need to transfer electricity as well as control it, you need a power circuit. When you install electrical wiring, this transfer is what you’re trying to accomplish. These are like the wiring systems in your residential home, but they can be as big as the power lines outside. If a large amount of electricity needs to be transferred and controlled, you’ll need power circuits to do it.

Electronic Circuits

Whereas power circuits are great for transferring and controlling electricity, they can’t do the same for information. That’s where electronic circuits come in. They come in many shapes and sizes. In fact, you probably have electrical circuits in your pocket right now. Cell phones are a perfect example of electronic circuits because of the amount of information flowing through that cell phone every day.

What Is a Circuit?

Now that we’ve made the distinction between a power circuit and an electronic circuit, what is a circuit anyway? In short, an electrical circuit is simply a pathway through which an electrical signal can travel. If electrons are allowed to travel from their source to their destination, your lights will light, your oven will heat, and your toaster will toast.

What Does It Mean When a Circuit Is Broken?

Just for the purpose of answering this question, picture a circuit as a circular train track. For the train to travel around that track, the track has to be continuous. Any break in the track and the train cannot continue.

Tips To Cook More Comfort With Kitchen Remodelling

Ways You Can Determine the Right Kitchen Remodel for Your Project

You’ve decided to remodel your kitchen. Now what? Not knowing where to start, many homeowners start by looking at kitchen appliances. Others collect inspiring kitchen photos. Some homeowners decide they need more room. Others simply want to upgrade their current kitchen. Homeowners may find themselves in this exploration stage for a year or longer before they start interviewing kitchen designers or general contractors.

Let’s take a step-by-step look at how to remodel your kitchen.

Think About What You Need in Your Kitchen Remodel
This step is all about figuring out how you use your kitchen, and finding the layout and features that fit your household’s lifestyle.

Think about your priorities and ask yourself some questions. How many people will be cooking and gathering here? How will they need to move around? Do you need an addition, or can you work with your existing kitchen footprint?
If you haven’t done so already, start saving photos of kitchens with features that suit your style. Your collection can be organized and beautiful like a scrapbook might be, or it can be filled with unorganized images. I like to randomly stuff images into my folders and ideabooks and go back to them later for edits.

 

Planning a Kitchen Layout

More than any room in the house, the kitchen needs to be practical and functional. Think about how you use your current kitchen to identify your priorities for the remodeled space. What works and what doesn’t? Give considerable thought to the layout of the room and assess what will work best for your household.

Whenever possible, make use of the classic work triangle. Arrange the sink, refrigerator, and stove (the three features used the most) in a triangular pattern. This is generally considered to be the most convenient setup because it saves unnecessary steps.

Also, think about how many people usually work in the kitchen at the same time. If it’s more than one, you might want to incorporate more than one workstation. Or, if there’s enough space, consider adding an island or purchase a wheeled cart that can be moved around the room and put away when not in use.

 

Finishing the Walls

Once a renovation project passes inspection, it is time to finish the walls. Hang, tape, and finish drywall according to your project plan. This includes any drywall necessary for a countertop bar or other section of the kitchen. If you aren’t skilled in this area, consider hiring a contractor to finish up the process.

This is also an optimum step to add a coat of primer to the drywall, even though you won’t add paint for quite some time. Why? The primer seals the facing paper and protects it against scuffs and scrapes when installing other items in the room. Accidents easily happen when you’re moving bulky cabinetry and appliances into the space, and this keeps it in great shape until you’re ready to add a splash of your favorite color later on in the renovation process.

Install Doors and Windows

After drywall, it is time to install any doors or windows. If you’re sticking with the same structure as your old kitchen, you might not have to do anything for this step. Simply take the time to wipe down your old ones with a good cleaner and seal any existing cracks around the windows with caulking to help insulate more effectively.

If you’re adding new doors or windows to the space, make sure to insulate them properly. A vast majority of a home’s energy cost each year comes from lost hot and cold air. Unsealed kitchen windows not only make your space less comfortable, but they could also cost you hundreds of dollars in heating and cooling bills.

 

Install Cabinetry

Even if you’re handling the renovation yourself, consider hiring a professional to install cabinets for you. The last thing you want is to get your cabinets up and start refilling them only to have them fall down or to realize you didn’t level them properly. A professional will make sure the cabinets are installed properly.

Open Shelving

Floating and open shelving is trending in homes across America. This design concept is loved by many designers as well, because it allows you to use your well-designed kitchenware as décor.

 

Bring in the Pros

There are two main players when it comes to professional kitchen remodeling help:

  • A kitchen designer
  • A general contractor

A kitchen designer ensures that your kitchen space is functional, efficient and the best value for your budget. They take the time to learn your needs and wants. Then they translate those into a functional, beautiful, and actionable plan.

A general contractor (GC) coordinates the build-out and installation of the kitchen designer’s plans. The GC is in charge of organizing products, materials and people. They schedule work for the trade professionals typically involved in kitchen renovations such as electricians, plumbers, tile professionals, fabricators, and finish carpenters.

Start early and be proactive with bringing in professionals. Their expertise will help you make better remodeling decisions, and making early appointments will ensure that you have a spot on their calendars. The most well-regarded pros have very busy schedules, and it’s common for a contractor to be booked months in advance.

What about interior design or architectural services? If you’re remodeling your entire house, or making major structural changes, you may have an interior designer or architect helping to coordinate the project. But if you’re only remodeling a kitchen, their services are not critical, even though they can add significant costs to the project.

Between you, your kitchen designer and your general contractor, you should able to make sure that your kitchen is decorated, designed and built to your liking.

Happy remodeling!

Must Know The Negative Side Before Do Plastic Surgery

Tips for choosing a plastic surgeon

Expertise

All plastic surgeons should be certified by the American Board of Plastic Surgery or Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada. Plastic surgery is a highly, complex specialty that requires years of education and training. Board certification also allows you to ensure that a physician will meet safety requirements and has the medical skills needed but it is only the beginning. Asking your surgeon about his or her professional involvement in teaching, speaking or writing about the procedure you are considering will tell you that he or she is up-to-date on new techniques and technology.

Experience

In addition to the right training and education, your physician should have experience performing the type of surgery you are considering. Some surgeons specialize in particular procedures, and your procedure type should be in his “top three.” A good rule of thumb is that he or she should have performed this type of procedure once or more per week for five years or more. Plastic surgery is a complex art and the surgeon needs to stay in practice. Having done a number of procedures over a number of years will help ensure that he or she has the skills that you need.

Exceptional Results

When most people think about plastic surgery – they think about the results they hope to get but not every plastic surgery story ends well. If you have ensured that your potential surgeon has the expertise and experience, you are on your way to choosing the right doctor but he or she also needs to produce exceptional results. Most plastic surgeons keep a file of “before and after” pictures which you should examine. Make sure these include at least two examples of “after” photos taken a year or more post-surgery.

 

Tips for Choosing a Cosmetic or Plastic Surgeon

Choose a Certified Surgeon

Make sure you select a cosmetic or plastic surgeon who is board certified by the American Board of Plastic Surgery, which is the only board recognized by the American Board of Medical Specialties. A cosmetic surgeon may also be certified by other specialty boards such as the American Board of Cosmetic Surgery, but they must first and foremost have American Board of Plastic Surgery certification. This ensures they are held to the highest standards of education, training, safety and ethics.

Consider the Surgeon’s Experience

When it comes to procedures and surgeries to alter your appearance, you want a knowledgeable doctor with lots of experience. Ask how many patients the surgeon has treated with your specific condition or how frequently he or she performs the procedure you’re considering.

Ask to See Before and After Photos

Look at before and after photos of patients with a similar shape and structure to you. This can help you determine whether their results reflect how you want to look after surgery. Consider consulting multiple different surgeons and examining their photos.

Assess the Doctor’s Communication Style

During your initial consultation, ask questions and discuss your aesthetic preferences. You want a doctor who listens to you, answers your questions in ways you can understand and respects your decisions. Your surgeon should be caring and you should feel comfortable talking to them about your medical history.

Ask Where Surgical Procedures are Performed

If you are considering surgery, check out the facility where it would occur. It should meet high standards for safety, and have life-saving equipment available at all times. The facility should be certified by the Joint Commission, the American Association for Accreditation of Ambulatory Surgery Facilities or the Accreditation Association for Ambulatory Health Care.

 

tips for choosing a plastic surgeon

Interview multiple surgeons

Committing to have plastic surgery is no small decision and it can be easy to feel overwhelmed at times. Even if you feel confident with the first plastic surgeon you see look into interviewing at least one or two more options. By consulting with different doctors you’ll learn more about the process each time.

Look for more than just a great deal

Comparing price is important when making any big financial decision but it shouldn’t be the ultimate deciding factor when it comes to plastic surgery. You’ll live with the results of your cosmetic procedure for a long time so you need to make sure that you’ll be happy with the results. There are other important factors to consider when selecting a surgeon like whether the doctor’s aesthetic decisions align with the look you’re seeking his or her experience level their surgery record and their experience with the particular surgery you seek.

See if the surgeon is board-certified

Professional certification sets a number of important standards that a surgeon must meet. When you select a board-certified plastic surgeon you’re choosing someone whose practice has been vetted by an independent third party. The American Board of Plastic Surgery certifies plastic surgeons who meet stringent standards.

Look for a surgeon with hospital access

The American Society of Plastic Surgeons advised that you shouldn’t let a surgeon perform a procedure on you unless they have “privileges to perform that same procedure at a reputable hospital.” If an issue occurs during your surgery it’s good to be in a hospital with resources and skilled doctors to treat you.

Ask questions

It’s important to talk with your doctor about all of your questions before you commit to the procedure. Not only will this help you to make sure that you’re getting exactly what you want it will also help you to feel more comfortable with the doctor. Here are a few questions you should add to your list.

 

Tips to Pick the Right Plastic Surgeon

What does the procedure cost? Is payment expected up-front? Most cosmetic procedures are considered elective and are not covered by health insurance plans.

Can you talk to other patients who have had the same procedure performed by this surgeon? Friends can be a good referral source if they have had a similar procedure themselves.

Are you a good candidate for the procedure you’re considering? What will be expected of you following the procedure? Your doctor should openly discuss with you any issues that may affect your personal outcome.

Does the doctor answer all your questions clearly and fully? Your doctor should be frank about issues such as recovery time, potential side effects, risks, and realistic expectations for the outcome of the procedure. While “before and after” photos make a convincing statement, be sure to ask if the photos represent typical results.

Does the doctor ask you about your reasons for having the procedure, and are you comfortable talking openly with this doctor? A good cosmetic surgeon will explain all alternatives to the procedure and will not pressure you into making a rapid decision.

 

Tips For Choosing The Best Plastic Surgeon

MAKE AN INFORMED DECISION AFTER RESEARCHING YOUR PROCEDURE AND READING THROUGH PLASTIC SURGERY GUIDES

ARRANGE AN INITIAL CONSULTATION TO RECEIVE PERSONALISED INFORMATION ABOUT WHAT’S POSSIBLE FOR YOU

CHECK YOUR SURGEON’S CREDENTIALS BEFORE AGREEING TO SURGERY

LOOK FOR ARTICLES IN THE MEDIA

CONTACT THE AUSTRALIAN SOCIETY OF PLASTIC SURGEONS (ASPS)

Choose The Right One For Tax Preparation

Tips for Choosing a Tax Preparer

Verify the Preparer’s Credentials

There are a lot of people out there claiming to be a “tax professional.” However, just because someone hangs out a shingle and advertises tax prep services, it doesn’t mean they actually have the skill, education, and expertise to handle your return.

Check the Preparer’s Professional Record

You have to be able to trust your tax preparer. Afterall, he or she will know all about your finances and even have your Social Security number. And even if a preparer is credentialed, that doesn’t guarantee that he or she has a good professional reputation. That’s why it’s smart to check a preparer’s history before handing over your tax and financial documents.

Ask About Fees

As with any other service or product you buy, make sure you have a good idea of the costs ahead of time. Prices for tax return preparation can vary widely depending on a variety of factors, including the complexity of your return, where you live, and the preparer’s experience. That’s why it’s important to get a quote before settling on a preparer.

Watch for Problems After Selecting a Preparer

Your due diligence doesn’t end after you pick a preparer. Watch out for warnings signs that something isn’t quite right. If one of these red flags pop up, you should seriously consider switching to another preparer right away.

Report Problems to the IRS

If you do run into a dishonest tax preparer, you can report them to the IRS using Form 14157. If you suspect that a preparer filed or changed your return without your consent, file Form 14157-A.

 

How to Find a Tax Accountant

Review Their Qualifications

Wondering how to find a good tax accountant? Before you hand over your money to a tax advisor you should take a close look at the tax accountant’s qualifications. New IRS regulations require anyone who’s paid to prepare tax returns to have a Preparer Tax Identification Number or PTIN. You should steer clear of any tax preparer who doesn’t have this credential or refuses to disclose it to you.

Look Into Their History

Just because someone is professionally qualified to prepare your tax return doesn’t automatically make them the best person for the job. If they’ve got a questionable history, that’s something you want to know about up front.

Check Their Availability

Once tax season gets underway you’ll start to see tax prep providers pop up everywhere. While some of them may be affiliated with established companies that provide year-round services, others close up shop as soon as tax season ends. That can be a problem if you need to amend your return later on or you have tax questions.

 

How to Choose the Right Tax Preparer

Find out how the tax preparer handles auditsHopefully this will not be an issue in the future but it is better to be safe than sorry. Will the tax preparer answer questions from the IRS for you? How will the fee be calculated to do this or to fix any mistakes?

Will the tax preparer be available for questions after tax season? Some tax preparers are seasonal, which is not very helpful when you receive notices mid-year from the IRS for more information.

Find out when you will receive a copy of your tax return. It may not be immediately, but it should be within a reasonable amount of time.

Know exactly who will be preparing your return at a firm. Will you need to sign the return or will the tax preparer do so? Beware of a preparer who refuses to sign a tax return.

Make sure they can file returns electronically. In this day and age, this is a must.Refunds are faster and there are less errors.

 

Tips to Find a Good Tax Preparer

Favor a Tax Preparer With a Long View

Tax season officially ends April 15, but a good tax preparer will help plan for tax savings for this year, next year, and beyond, says Joseph Conroy, a certified financial planner at Synergy Financial Group in Towson, Md.

Ask for a Price Quote

Often, a tax preparer will say that he can’t tell you what he’ll charge until he determines which forms you’ll need. But you can try to pin down an answer by presenting the forms you completed last year or by asking for a list of fees for various types of tax help, Morris says.

Find a Preparer With Clients Like You

Ideally, you want a preparer with clients who are similar to you. That way, you’re more likely to get the best service for your particular needs.

Look for a Well-Established Pro

Ideally, it’s a good idea to find a preparer who has had at least seven to 10 years of experience, says Daniel Morris, a CPA and senior partner at Morris + D’Angelo, a CPA firm headquartered in Los Angeles. The reason: The more time a preparer has been working on tax returns, the more likely he is to have dealt with a tax situation similar to yours.

Check the Tax Preparer’s Credentials

Anyone with a preparer tax identification number can handle and file your taxes, but it’s best to find someone who also can handle audits, IRS collections, and appeals, says Ann-Marie Long, a CPA and tax manager at SKC & Co., a CPA firm based in Boonton Township, N.J. Only a certified public accountant or an enrolled agent—another type of tax professional—can represent you before the IRS in those situations, she notes.

 

Tips for Choosing a Tax Preparer This Year

Ask about availability

Tax preparers tend to be pretty busy during tax season. Throw in the fact that many are still getting used to last year’s tax changes, and you might be hard-pressed to find someone who can hammer out your return on a whim. You have until April 15 to file your return this year, so if you find a tax preparer who can work with you, say, during the last week of March, that gives you a decent window to complete your taxes before the deadline.

Find out whether you’ll get audit support

You can be as honest with the IRS as possible and have the most meticulous tax preparer in the world, and sometimes, your return might get flagged for an audit nonetheless. Since that possibility always exists, one thing you should be sure to inquire about is whether the tax preparer you hire will provide audit support in the event you need it. As mentioned earlier, not all tax preparers are authorized to represent clients in IRS matters, so it pays to find someone who is.

Figure out what your fees will entail

Clearly, the drawback of hiring a tax preparer is having to pay for that service, but if you do your research, you might keep that cost manageable. The amount you’re charged will generally depend on how complicated your tax situation is and how many unique tax forms the professional you hire will need to prepare.

Check for the right qualifications

Tax preparers have varying levels of training and skills, so if you’re going to hire one, you might as well get your money’s worth. While a non-CPA accountant might technically be qualified to prepare your return, it often pays to hire an actual CPA or an enrolled agent (a federally licensed tax practitioner). Both CPAs and enrolled agents are authorized to represent clients in IRS matters, so if the need arises, that’s some nice protection to have.

Tips To Buy The Best Hardwood Flooring

The Glue Down Method of Installing Hardwood Flooring

Glue down is When using the glue-down method, hardwood adheres to the subfloor, or to a moisture barrier that is mounted directly on the subfloor, using a strong adhesive. Although some exceptions may exist, we recommend attaching only engineered hardwood products. The subfloor must be completely dry and level to ensure proper installation. There are several different types of adhesives on the market. A professional installer will use the type of adhesive that is specifically recommended for your wood flooring products.

 

Glue-down Floors

How it works

There are numerous reasons why people opt for glue-down installations as their preferred fixing method. Whilst we’ll get to the pros and cons in a minute, let’s look at what glue-down floors entail.

As with all fixing methods, you’ll need to ensure your subfloor is completely level. Gluing is often used when laying over concrete or wood. A strong adhesive specifically made for wood flooring is required to ensure longevity and premium quality. The adhesive is then applied to the subfloor in small, workable sections. This is done to ensure the glue doesn’t dry prematurely. As with laying any wood floor, you need to ensure an appropriate expansion gap is left.

Glue-down floors, technically, are usable on all wood flooring types. However, it is mostly used on solid wood boards which do not have a click or tongue and groove system. Whilst it can be used on flooring with these systems, it’s often seen as less cost-effective due to the extra materials and time needed for installation.

If you are laying over concrete, it’s crucial to ensure there is no dampness within the subfloor. Even the smallest amount can lead to issues in the future. If you can’t be certain there’s no damp, you can use a liquid damp proof membrane (DPM) before you glue your flooring down. This adds a protective layer to prevent the moisture getting into the wood.

 

The Benefits and Drawbacks of Glue Down Flooring

Glue down hardwood flooring often sounds more like real solid hardwood flooring than floating floors do. Because of the way it is installed there isn’t a hollow sound when walking across the floor or a spongy feel, this is something that can be an issue with floating floors if they aren’t installed perfectly and with optimal conditions.

Benefits:

  • Glue down hardwood flooring also doesn’t require a vapor barrier because the glue itself acts as the barrier. This can reduce the installation costs for this type of flooring a bit, though they are comparable to one another when you account for the cost of glue and increased labor costs.
  • Glue down flooring also shifts a bit less, and it can be used in surfaces that aren’t quite as level as what is required with floating floors.

Drawbacks:

Even though glue down hardwood flooring types come with quite a few benefits, they also take much longer to install than floating floors do.

  • They are more difficult to install and will come with higher labor costs if you have professionals put them in.
  • These floors are more difficult to remove if you decide you want to replace them down the road, and you’ll be working much harder to take off the adhered boards than you would with a simple click and lock type of floating floor.

 

General Instructions Prior to Installation

It is recommended that the flooring be installed at a 90 degree angle to the joists for wood subfloors. An additional 5% flooring must be added to the actual square footage needed for cutting and grading allowance.

Plan out the installation determining an appropriate color match of boards. Floor should be installed from several cartons at the same time to ensure good color and shade mixture.

Remove any existing base molding, other moldings, door sills and old floor covering where applicable. Using a hand saw, undercut the bottom of door frames ¾” to slide hardwood board beneath.

Do not use flooring pieces with obvious defects. It is the installer’s/owner’s responsibility to ensure that the conditions of the flooring are acceptable prior to installation. The manufacturer declines any responsibility for flooring which is installed with obvious defects and/or flooring which is installed under improper jobsite conditions.

 

Before you begin

Before the installation begins, it is important to perform a thorough job-site inspection. Ensure that the HVAC is operational and the hardwood product is completely acclimated to the temperature and humidity at which the room will be maintained when occupied. The floor will be glued directly to the sub-flooring using a hardwood flooring adhesive. With that said, one of the most important factors while dealing with glue down installation is going to be your subfloor.

Subfloor

Subfloor preparation is critical on all job-sites, but especially for glue down. Subfloor preparation can range from sanding, scraping, leveling, filling low spots or installing a whole new subfloor. A general guideline while leveling your subfloor would be not to allow more than 3/16” difference in height within a 10 feet diameter. When gluing over a concrete slab, it is important to take proper moisture readings. The concrete slab needs the proper moisture vapor protection underneath and proper drainage away from the building. Once your subfloor preparation is complete and your floor is level it is time to choose an adhesive.

Adhesives

All adhesives are not made the same. When choosing which adhesive is right for your project, consider how hardwood flooring glue is specifically made for hardwood. Hardwood is a natural product and will expand or contract with the change in humidity as it takes on moisture or loses moisture. The difference between hardwood flooring adhesives is that they are made to embrace natural characteristics of wood, which is why it is specially formulated to be more elastic than other adhesives. The elasticity in hardwood flooring glue ensures that the hardwood will have an ample amount of space to expand and contract without causing the glue to crack or separate. Improper floor preparation, using the wrong adhesive, or applying incorrect amounts are all common pitfalls of a failed flooring installation. Certain hardwood adhesives also contain elements which act as a moisture barrier and/or a sound reduction. Be sure to consider all of these traits when choosing which adhesive to use. Next, let’s move on to installation.

Installation

Once you have decided to use the glue down floor method, make sure that you leave a large enough expansion gap, depending on the hardwood product you chose, from the wall to allow the wood to contract and expand. The adhesive is spread on an area of the subfloor where the boards are going to be adhered to using a specialized trowel. While installing, be sure to do small areas at a time. Do not pre-spread the adhesive over the entire sub-floor as it will dry before you get to that area. Furthermore, periodically during the installation, lift a board after you have placed it to make certain you have full coverage of the adhesive to the back of the flooring product. This will help ensure your floor will remain bonded to the subfloor for years to come. Once your flooring is installed it is best to let it dry for 24 hours, during this time you should not walk on it. The amount of adhesive used is adjusted by the teeth size of your trowel and may be dependant on if you need vapor barrier properties.

Choose The Right Time To Make Drywall Repairs

How About That Drywall Repair

Drywall is relatively simple to install and easy to repair. It’s also easy to repair badly, which can leave a lumpy mess that declares “shoddy” to anyone who enters the room.

It’s best to do a repair with three or four thin coats of compound–if possible leaving sanding for just the last coat. Also,the most important thing with a repair is to build the joint out wider than you would normally, The key is to leave a wide and very shallow slope on all sides, he says.

A drywall repair toolkit is simple. It consists of flexible knives in 3-, 6- and 8-in. widths, an inside-corner knife, a utility knife, a hammer, a screwdriver, a drywall saw and a drill. Some repairs also may require a hand sander, a hacksaw, a nail bar and a level. Chances are good that you already own these. As for materials, drywall compound, mesh tape, paper tape, drywall nails and screws take care of most repairs.

 

How to Repair Drywall After Electrical Work

Electricians cut through drywall to gain access to wires when running new wire or adding or removing receptacles, utility boxes and light switches. An electrician will often cut more drywall than needed to increase his workspace. After installing a receptacle, junction box or new light switch, the hole surrounding the new feature is larger and requires filling. Electricians fishing for wires in a wall generally drill smaller holes but may drill more than one leaving a several areas requiring repair.

Large Holes

  1. To repair large holes after removing switches, receptacles or boxes, cut a thin piece of wood 2 inches larger than the hole. Cut a piece of hardware cloth 1 inch bigger than the hole in all directions. Apply fast-drying construction adhesive to the center of the wood and affix the hardware cloth to the wood. Allow the adhesive to dry for five minutes.
  2. Thread a length of string through the hardware cloth and around the back of the wood so that you hold both ends of the string in your hand. Apply construction adhesive to each end of the wood and around the edges of the hardware cloth. Insert the wood and hardware cloth into the hole with the adhesive facing you. Position the wood in the center of the hole. Draw the string toward you so the wood and cloth adheres to the inside of the wall. Hold it in place until the adhesive sets, generally less than five minutes.
  3. Apply a layer of drywall compound with a putty knife over the hardware cloth and wood while keeping tension on the string. Do not cover the string; leave a 1/4 inch gap around it. Allow the drywall compound to set for one hour.
  4. Cut the string with a utility knife and fill in the hole with drywall compound. Let the drywall compound dry completely, typically two to three hours, and sand smooth with 120-grit sandpaper.

Small Holes

  1. To repair small holes drilled when fishing for wires, sand the surface of the hole with 120-grit sandpaper to make it smooth.
  2. Press drywall compound into the hole with a putty knife. Build it up so it sits just above the existing drywall surface.
  3. Allow the drywall compound to dry completely, usually two to three hours.
  4. Sand the repair smooth with 120-grit sandpaper.

Overcuts

  1. To repair overcuts on receptacles, light switches and boxes, apply drywall compound to the void space between the receptacle, switch or box. Press it in to coat the edges of the drywall and outside edges of the electrical box. Remove drywall compound from the inside edges of the utility box with a putty knife.
  2. Place drywall tape over the wet drywall compound, up to the edge of the electrical box and smooth it out with a flexible putty knife. Apply a layer of drywall compound over the tape. Allow the drywall compound to dry for one to two hours.
  3. Apply another layer of drywall compound over the dry compound and allow it to set for one to two hours. Apply a third layer and allow it to dry. Keep the layers thin so they adhere, set and dry properly.
  4. Sand the repair with 120-grit sandpaper so it sits flush with the existing wall.

 

What Is the Difference Between Drywall Mud & Interior Spackling Paste?

Hardware stores stock a variety of types of spackling paste for filling holes prior to painting, but in a pinch, you can always use drywall joint compound. The main difference between them is that spackling paste resists shrinking and is formulated primarily for filling smaller holes.

Types of Spackling Paste

The most lightweight spackling compound, which is made from vinyl, has virtually no mass and dries almost instantaneously. It’s the easiest product to use when filling holes in drywall left by nails and pins, but it doesn’t have enough bulk for holes larger than about 1/4 inch in diameter. Heavier spackling paste, made from acrylic, works well for filling these larger holes, but because of its weight, it dries more slowly and shrinks somewhat; you sometimes need more than one application.

Drywall Joint Compound

The main ingredient in joint compound — or mud — is gypsum, and it’s the product that you use for taping and finishing drywall seams. You can also use it to patch holes, although it takes longer to dry and shrinks more than spackling paste. One advantage of mud, however, is the ease with which you can sand it, and another is that you probably already have some around the house left over from your last remodeling project. You can use mud to fill any hole that you would fill with spackling paste

 

What are the Advantages of a Drywall Repair Kit?

Convenience is probably the most common reason for someone to opt to use a kit. If you’re not used to working with drywall, then you’re going to be able to get all of the tools you need in one shot and there’s instructions included. Some of the kits offer longer lasting backings that can cover some surprisingly large holes, metal screens are particularly good in this respect.

If you’ve never worked with drywall before, kits are a fantastic option.

If you have worked with drywall frequently, however, you probably have what you need lying around in the garage and the main advantage offered to you by using one is just that you don’t have to dig out a big bucket of compound or search for the tools in the garage.

 

Why is Drywall Repair Before Interior Painting Important?

If you’re thinking about delaying your drywall repair, or decide to paint over the damage, you take the risk of your top coat paint flaking off. The look of your home interior and completed paint job will also suffer from holes, cracks, and other aesthetic flaws.

Hiring a professional drywall repair service before interior painting is essential for these reasons and others:

  • Repairing cracks, holes, or dents in your drywall will result in a smoother interior paint application that lasts. A smooth, fresh paint application performed by a professional painting company can enhance the entire look and feel of your home interior.
  • Drywall repair leaves the elements outside where they belong. The most important function of your home’s drywall is that it keeps wind, moisture, pests, and insulation from entering your home. But when your drywall develops holes or cracks, these things can get inside your house.
  • Cold or warm outdoor air exposure due to cracks and holes in drywall can negatively impact energy efficiency. This can leave you with larger electric and gas bills.